Are Gut Bacteria Making You Fat? Part III: Two Emerging Hypotheses of Obesity

donutsWhen talking about body fat regulation we always have to adhere to the basic laws of thermodynamics. We know that increases in body fat mass happens when energy intake is higher than energy expenditure, and that we have to either decrease energy intake, increase energy expenditure, or both in order to lose weight. This basic fact has led many to believe that weight loss is all about eating less and/or exercising more. However, what we also have to account for is that the body is not a passive vehicle that just comes along for the ride. We already know that carbohydrates, fats, and proteins have a different thermic effect in the body and thereby differentially influence energy expenditure. We also know that food choices and diet composition have an impact on hormone levels, inflammatory processes, gut microbiota, reward centers in the brain, etc. and can thereby influence appetite, energy intake, and energy expenditure.

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